Italy was proclaimed a republic. Since 1944 Political life in Italy proceeded very rapidly, as evidenced by frequent (sometimes two or three times a year) the resignation of the government. Italy is a member of the United Nations and all specialized agencies of the organization, NATO, EU OSCE, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The country's climate is very different in different regions, from close to the Arctic high in the Alps to subtropical on the coast of the Ligurian Sea and the western coast south of the peninsula. The average annual temperature in the Po Valley – about 13 C, in Sicily – about 18 C in coastal areas – about 15 C. In contrast to the subtropical south, the climate in the valley of the Lombardy continental with hot summers and cold winters, when temperatures sometimes drop to -15 C.
In the central and southern sub-tropical vegetation is typical. In these regions, growing olives, citrus, palm, fig, date palm, pomegranate and almond trees, sugar cane and cotton. Vegetation Apennines resembles the vegetation of Central Europe: walnut, oak and cypress, on the lower slopes and fir and pine – on the upper slopes of the mountains. The fauna of the country is not very rich: in the Alps, roe deer are occasionally found, IBEX, the Alpine marmot. Bear is almost extinct, but the wolf and wild boar are available in large quantities in the mountainous regions of the country. Among the birds – the eagle, hawk, vulture, hawk, quail, quail, buzzard. Several species of reptiles, including three species of poisonous snakes.
In the south are found scorpions. Of the many attractions of the country following can be mentioned. In Rome: the world famous Pantheon – ancient temple, built in 27 BC, the Coliseum, built in 80 AD, and several triumphal arches in honor of Roman emperors and generals, the Roman Forum and the Imperial Forum, Caracalla Baths (217 year), the catacombs, in which refuge from the persecution of early Christians; fort Castel Sant'Angelo, originally built as a mausoleum of Emperor Hadrian in the Middle Ages and rebuilt under the consolidation, the Basilica of St..